A new peace initiative is launched by the United States, the European Union, Russia and the United Nations (collectively called ‘The Quartet’) to replace the failed ‘Oslo Accords’. The new initiative – known as ‘The Roadmap’ to Peace – called for a ‘performance based’ path to peace in stages. The ﬁrst stage requires the Palestinian leadership to disarm and disband the terrorist organisations. Arafat agrees to ‘the Roadmap’ and pledges to take the necessary action, but fails to do so. The Roadmap falters.